Rehabilitation is defined as the combined and coordinated use of medial, social, educational and vocational measures for training and retraining an individual to the highest level of functional activities.
Objectives of Rehabilitation
- Provision of appropriate medical facilities and treatment as early as possible.
- Provision of suitable education for the children and disable.
- Assistance in achieving and maintaining a state of good mental health, including positive psychological attitude towards the handicap in the society.
- Education of general public regarding the needs and worth of handicap person.
- Giving vocational assistance in relation with the extent of disability.
Some other objectives are –
- To eliminate disability
- To reduce or remove disability to the greatest extent
- To retrain the person with residual physical abilities and built his capabilities.
Principal of Rehabilitation:
- It should be started at the earliest time in order to ensure best result
- To be administered in conjunction with specific medical and surgical treatment, specific for a disability.
- To give attention and listen to patient carefully.
- Building up the patient to the highest possible level of functional activity.
- Knowing the socio-economic standard of the disabled and
- Training and retraining in a particular task (job oriented)
Levels of Prevention
Primary level of prevention:
These are the actions taken to reduce the occurrence of impairment.
- Vaccination and immunization
- Sanitation and safe water
- Health education
- Proper nutrition
Secondary level of prevention:
It is the control of or limiting the consequences of impairment once it has occurred.
- Early treatment
- Effective drug therapy
- Correction of deformity
Tertiary level of prevention:
Here the treatment aims at preventing the occurrence from becoming handicap.
- Therapeutic measures provided by physiotherapists, occupational therapists and speech therapists.
- Training in self care activities i.e. ADL’s.
- Providing technical aids i.e. orthoses and prosthesis.
- Social and vocational confidence
- Providing education and suitable job for the handicap
- Education for improving the attitude of family towards the patient
Rehabilitation team comprises of –
- Physiatrist – a trained physician in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMR).
- Occupational therapist
- Speech therapist
- Clinical Psychologist
- Rehab nurse
- Prosthetist and orthotist
- Social worker
- Vocational counsellor and
- Recreational therapist
The role of physiotherapist as a member of rehabilitation team is –
- Evaluation and assessment of range of motion and strength,
- Restoration of movement and strength,
- Use to superficial and deep physical agents (modalities),
- Work on balance, coordination, transfer techniques, gait and ambulation,
- Training and research and
- Creation of a barrier free environment for the patient.
REHABILITATION CENTRES/ INSTITUTES IN INDIA
- National institute for visually handicap, NIVH (Dehradun)
- National institute for hearing handicap, NIHH (Bombay)
- National institute for mentally handicap, NIMH (Sikandrabad)
- Institute for physically handicapped, IPH (New Delhi)
- National institute for mental health and neurosciences, NIMHNS (Bangalore)
- National institute for rehabilitation training and research, NIRTAR (Cuttack)
- National institute of orthopedically handicapped, NIOH (Calcutta)